How do you make a coin turn? By a special force (gravity) called centripetal force (it is also called the rotation of the Earth) and by the inertia of the penny. The friction between the penny and its ground state is called the friction force. But what if the penny had no friction? It turns out that if a metal cylinder slides along a wire and is pulled down by the wire, the wire creates centripetal forces. If the wire extends at right angles to the cylinder, the centrifugal force will be perpendicular to the wire. Thus, a new axis to describe the movement of the penny is created. (You are probably wondering, “How do you know where that axis is going to be?” Well, as mentioned above, it is called the axis of rotation of the earth.) You may also wonder why this process occurs. As a matter of fact it works quite well, and it is quite safe. What do you mean?
It turns out that the centripetal force is created because the penny can move along the wire while the wire is extending at right angles to the penny. The mechanism is quite ingenious, it’s like a pair of scissors. So the centripetal force of the penny is formed by the interaction of the two forces. The two forces, centripetal and centrifugal, must be combined in some way during operation.
What are the forces that are formed ? Centrifugal forces are formed by the force (penny + wire) and the force that is transmitted (wire) of the centripetal force of the penny. Centrifugal forces are, therefore, formed by the force of the centripetal force that is transmitted to the wire by the extension of the wire at right angles to the penny. Centrifugal forces are also formed by the centripetal forces that are transmitted from the wire to the penny. Centrifugal forces are not transmitted to the wire until the centripetal force has passed from the wire to the penny. And once the centripetal force that is transmitted from the wire to the penny passes from the wire to the penny, the centripetal force is no longer transmitted to the wire. It can no longer be created from the wire, it has expired. It is simply a remnant of the wire that is no longer connected with the wire and thus is no longer exerting any centripetal force on the penny.
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